Amphetamines were first synthesized in the late nineteenth century by a
German scientist; the synthesis of methamphetamine is attributed to a
Japanese chemist in 1919. Historically, methamphetamine has had therapeutic
uses. It also has been widely abused for its powerful stimulant effects.
Amphetamine derivatives, such as methamphetamine, were developed in both
oral and intravenous form. They were promoted as nonaddictive. In 1937,
amphetamine became available by prescription in tablet form. It was used in
the treatment of hyperactive children, Parkinson's disease, depression, and
narcolepsy. When narcolepsy patients reported loss of appetite, it was
discovered that amphetamines also worked as an anorectic.
Japan was the first country to experience a methamphetamine epidemic. During
World War II, large amounts of methamphetamine were produced for use by
war-industry factory workers to aid output. Following the war,
methamphetamine tablets, of which large quantities remained in store, were
vigorously promoted by pharmaceutical companies and large quantities were
sold to the Japanese public without prescription. Epidemic intravenous use
of the drug soon followed.
called meth, crystal, or speed, is a central nervous system stimulant that
can be injected, smoked, snorted, or ingested orally; prolonged use at high
levels results in dependence. Methamphetamine (MA) is a derivative of
amphetamine, which was widely prescribed in the 1950s and 1960s as a
medication for depression and obesity, reaching a peak of 31 million
prescriptions in the United States in 1967. Until the late 1980s, illicit
use and manufacture of MA was endemic to California, but the MA user
population has recently broadened in nature and in regional distribution,
with increased use occurring in midwestern states. An estimated 4.7 million
Americans (2.1% of the U.S. population) have tried MA at some time in their
lives. Short- and long-term health effects of MA use include stroke, cardiac
arrhythmia, stomach cramps, shaking, anxiety, insomnia, paranoia,
hallucinations, and structural changes to the brain. Children of MA abusers
are at risk of neglect and abuse, and the use of MA by pregnant women can
cause growth retardation, premature birth, and developmental disorders in
neonates and enduring cognitive deficits in children. MA-related deaths and
admissions to hospital emergency rooms are increasing. Although inpatient
hospitalization may be indicated to treat severe cases of long-term MA
dependence, optimum treatment for MA abusers relies on an intensive
outpatient setting with three to five visits per week of comprehensive
counseling for at least the first three months.
Speed, crystal, ice, glass, crystal meth, Tina and Mexican crank.